Microservice Architecture has been making waves in the world of web application development lately, and for a good reason!
Statistics show that at least 80% of companies are modernizing their applications to use this architecture, with over 50% having modernised their system with this architecture to some extent already. As a result, they are experiencing rapid and consistent release cycles almost daily. Tech giants Amazon, Netflix, and Uber have all capitalized on the strength of microservices in Java to hurdle major roadblocks while achieving their paramount business goals.
Although organizations of any size may encounter roadblocks on their journey to success, embracing a microservices architecture with belief presents an outstanding chance for success. Selecting the ideal technology stack and utilising mindful approaches to configuration management when implementing microservices architecture is vital to ensure you reach this destination.
This article has been created to present the benefits of microservices in Java, a guide on which Java frameworks are suitable for developing them and offer advice on constructing a microservice-based Java application.
Table Of Contents
2. Microservice Architecture
What is microservices architecture? It is a way of developing simpler and independent programs in service-oriented architecture where services interact with an API or messaging broker to form the entire app. This approach utilizes small and independent services organized around business capabilities, allowing them to be independently scaled, managed, and deployed – while remaining loosely coupled.
Rather than a single massive codebase, each service runs its process and generally interacts with one another via either synchronous requests or asynchronous messaging. This makes application engineering and upkeep easier since the multiple services are more broken up and less interconnected than traditional infrastructures.
3. What are Java Microservices?
Microservices in the Java programming language allow you to take advantage of its expansive ecosystem of frameworks and libraries that come together to construct complex, effective, yet flexible solutions.
When creating Microservices, one of the most essential decisions is which language to use. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) offers developers an amazing chance for cross-language development by offering a platform to take advantage of different programming languages and a large ecosystem. Java Microservice architecture makes analysing other languages or frameworks much less precarious.
Java Microservices are no different or more special than any other microservice type. Microservices are platform-agnostic, written in any programming language, and deployed across multiple environments. With this, you can effortlessly adopt innovative technologies and new trends while guaranteeing your services stay safe and reliable.
4. Why Java is the Right Option for Microservices?
When designing microservices, it can be overwhelming with the sheer number of tools and languages available. Java stands out amongst them all as an ideal choice for implementing microservice architecture due to its many benefits. Let’s explore a few reasons why this is true!
Java is an object-oriented language, making it the perfect choice for developing sophisticated applications and systems. Its extensive libraries simplify coding procedures, helping reduce development time.
Java is a giant of the tech world, with multiple highly popular frameworks such as Spring Boot. This makes developing microservices easier since you get so much out-of-the-box functionality you can use immediately!
A Pool of Experienced Developers
Java is a veteran programming language with an abundance of experienced Java developers familiar with its usage and continual updates that bring about new features.
Language Tools and Syntax
Java is renowned for its developer-friendly and straightforward annotations and for supporting microservice architecture through standards like JPA (data handling). Its structured development eases the process of creating & implementing microservices without adding any complexities. Thanks to these features, it has become an exceedingly popular choice among developers building complex distributed systems.
Documentation and Community
With its vast resources, libraries, frameworks and documentation, Java is renowned as one of the oldest and most expansive programming languages. From enterprise application development and mobile web apps to big data and cloud computing AI/ML projects – Java can be found at the heart of many critical operations running worldwide due to its platform-independent nature of JVM.
5. Benefits Of Microservices in Java
Evaluating the pros and cons of microservices-based architecture is crucial to decide if your organization should invest in it. This approach carries diverse rewards, yet it isn’t without shortcomings. Let us assess these benefits and drawbacks so you can make an informed decision for your business!
Compared to a monolithic application, microservices in Java are much easier to manage, test and deploy due to their service-oriented architecture style. These small autonomous pieces of code can be quickly and easily altered as needed.
By utilizing microservices architecture, businesses can achieve an unprecedented level of scalability. For example, individual services can be scaled up or down as desired without simultaneously scaling the entire monolithic system. This gives companies greater control and flexibility in their operations while ensuring they remain efficient.
The ever-evolving technology landscape, evolving customer expectations and the need for rapid development cycles have driven developers to embrace microservices. This allows them to select the most optimal tool or language for a specific job by combining different technologies from different services – which would be very difficult in monolithic applications.
Microservices provide an opportunity to keep up with modern trends while simultaneously meeting business demands and delivering exceptional user experiences.
With Java Microservices, if a single component of the application malfunctions, it has much less effect on the entire stack than with Monolithic architecture. Each microservice runs individually, and this enhances fault isolation. If using Monolithic technology instead, any alteration would require redeploying your whole application. The capacity to make frequent changes and deployments is made simpler through Microservices.
6. Drawbacks Of Microservices in Java
Keeping track of performance in a microservices architecture can be difficult since it comprises numerous services. It’s almost impossible to detect any likely issues or understand the source of errors without having visibility into every service. With their complex collaboration, diagnosing and addressing problems may require an extensive examination of multiple components.
An infrastructure tailored specifically for the increased workload is paramount to support independently deployable services. This is especially true when dealing with services that demand frequent updates and must be able to scale rapidly according to fluctuating demands.
Diagnosing microservices can be tricky, hence the need to track interactions between different systems. These often require pricey or labour-intensive tools, adding complexity and frustration to an already complex system.
When utilizing microservices in your architecture, you put yourself at risk of a data breach due to its complexity. Unlike the traditional monolithic application system, which consists of one main service point for data access and no additional entry points, microservices comprise numerous minor services that can be exploited through multiple pathways – making them more vulnerable to malicious attacks.
7. Best Java Microservices frameworks
If you are seeking the best Java microservices framework for development, you need to evaluate different options that will help you create excellent solutions based on your needs. Here is a list of several microservices frameworks:
Developers around the globe have embraced Spring Boot as their best Java microservices framework – and for a good reason. With its centralized configuration, rapid application development tools, robust functionality and aspect-oriented programming, Spring Boot is a top choice among Java microservice programmers. Nearly 60% of all Java users now utilize Spring Boot to create reliable microservices architectures with ease.
Spring Boot is an ideal solution for developers of novice microservices due to its open-source nature and comprehensive features. The framework includes extensive documentation and a large community of helpful users. Spring Boot is a beloved and widely adopted framework, making it easy to find online resources to help your developers get started.
It is a comprehensive framework that provides the best of both worlds: easily generated Spring boot project templates for an accelerated development cycle and advanced features to handle more complex projects. This impressive tool allows microservices to be quickly built with minimal configuration, but additional options are available if needed! So why is it a waste of time to start from scratch when you can launch your project in minutes?
Dropwizard is a powerful Java microservices open-source framework allowing developers to build high-performance RESTful web services rapidly. This comprehensive package provides an assortment of mature and reliable Java libraries so you can instantly begin creating complex applications with ease. By collecting all the necessary utilities into one tidy solution, Dropwizard simplifies the development process.
Dropwizard has limitations, similar to Spring Boot, except you are more limited in your customization capabilities. By default, Dropwizard utilizes Jackson for Serialization and deserialization tasks, Jersey for REST library operations and Jetty as the Servlet container choice. If a developer wants to switch out any of these components with alternatives – though highly discouraged – they will face difficulty due to the restrictive framework.
If you aim to write a quick-starting RESTful web app or microservice, Dropwizard’s the right framework. With its rapid deployment capabilities and setup time in mere minutes, your project can be up and running without an issue. However, it is important to remember that while speed is achievable with this platform, flexibility may need to take a backseat.
Quarkus was created to empower Java developers with the capability to develop and deploy web applications specifically for modern, cloud-native environments. It is a Kubernetes-compatible JVM framework of superior quality Java libraries and standards that strive to make Java the premier platform for web apps in both Kubernetes and serverless conditions while giving coders an efficient system to tackle more comprehensive distributed application architectures.
Redhat-backed Quarkus is quickly becoming popular for developers looking to craft high-performance and scalable microservices in Java. The perfect blend of imperative-style programming with non-blocking, reactive development is ideal for veteran Java coders who don’t want to switch things up and those into cloud-native/reactive coding.
Micronaut is quickly becoming the go-to framework of choice for Java developers, with Oracle and JetBrains among its high-profile supporters. This modern JVM-based full-stack platform has everything you need to build incredible modular web applications that are easily testable in microservice or serverless environments. With such powerful backing from industry giants, it’s safe to say that Micronaut may as well be on track to rival the likes of Spring Boot & Cloud in the future.
Micronaut is a revolutionary framework with unique features and supports programming languages like Java, Groovy, and Kotlin. Its pioneering compile-time dependency injection mechanism enables developers to experience faster application loading times while consuming less memory. Unlike other frameworks that utilize reflection or proxies at runtime to perform their dependency injections, Micronaut builds up the necessary information during compilation – leading to increased speed and drastically reduced memory usage!
8. Microservices use Cases Examples
Spotify has become a renowned example of using Java microservices to construct a service-oriented architecture and dodge the difficulties of monolithic systems. Spotify currently entertains more than 489 million monthly active users worldwide who use the application. Thus, they need to have a smooth experience overall without any disruptions.
Spotify’s Java microservices are self-contained, and independent teams can develop single-purpose services with a specific goal. For instance, a single Java microservice is responsible for user search queries and analytics for recommendation engines, automatic playlists, content tagging, etc. These isolated experiences ensure unchanged customer service that can continually be improved without disruption in other areas due to the full autonomy of respective teams.
Given its enormous scale, Amazon has one of the most fascinating microservice use cases. If we focus on their eCommerce application, it’s evident that the service needs to manage multiple operations with incredible demands for workloads. From personalization and search functions to price optimization and advertisements, all these tasks are achieved through APIs which makes them extremely powerful yet agile at the same time.
With the microservice approach, every feature is delegated to a specialized team with its workflows and processes. This simplifies decision-making for each feature, resulting in faster delivery times while ensuring customer satisfaction even when making more than 50 million deployments per year.
After Uber’s launch, it didn’t take long for them to hit a wall due to its monolithic application structure. The ride-sharing giant encountered difficulty developing and introducing new features rapidly, fixing bugs, or integrating its expanding worldwide operations until it implemented the Java microservice architecture. In the wake of that, developers created individual microservices for processes such as passenger organization and trip management and connected all its microservices via an API gateway.
As they adopted this architectural style, Uber noticed many benefits. For starters, their developers were broken up into teams that could solely concentrate on one service – empowering them to become experts in the individual services and resolve any issues quickly without impacting other areas due to a single service update not affecting the others. With Uber’s rapid expansion rate rapidly increasing, scaling was now easier than ever; each team could selectively focus only on services requiring additional scale while leaving all else unchanged.
In conclusion, understanding the basics of building Java microservices and how to utilize them best can help you take full advantage of this technology’s benefits. It is important to consider all aspects of architecture before deciding, including the several microservices frameworks and any potential drawbacks associated with this technology.
Java Microservices are an excellent way to create individualized digital applications with highly scalable web APIs that are easy to maintain and expand. From e-commerce businesses to large financial services organizations, Java Microservices are an invaluable asset for a wide range of digital use cases. As more organizations realize their incredible potential, implementing this versatile technology will continue to grow substantially.
Daniel Barczak is a software developer with a solid 9-year track record in the industry. Outside the office, Daniel is passionate about home automation. He dedicates his free time to tinkering with the latest smart home technologies and engaging in DIY projects that enhance and automate the functionality of living spaces, reflecting his enthusiasm and passion for smart home solutions.